Translation as Text is the direct successor of the volume Text and Translation, published as Uebersetzungswissenschaftliche Beitraege 8 in 1985. Positive response to the original monograph and its successful use as a reference in advanced translation classes in Germany and other countries encouraged us to extensively revise the volume and add new material. We have attempted to clarify the theoretical position and methodological assumptions that were implicit in the earlier version. A new first chapter places the volume in the context of the variety of modern approaches to translation. The monograph describes translation studies as the empirical study of the relationships among translator, the process of translation, and the text.