A twentysomething bus rider with a long, skinny neck and a goofy hat accuses another passenger of trampling his feet; he then grabs an empty seat. Later, in a park, a friend encourages the same man to reorganize the buttons on his overcoat. In Raymond Queneau's Exercises in Style, this determinedly pointless scenario unfolds 99 times in twice as many pages. Originally published in 1947 (in French), these terse variations on a theme are a wry lesson in creativity. The story is told as an official letter, as a blurb for a novel, as a sonnet, and in "Opera English." It's told onomatopoetically, philosophically, telegraphically, and mathematically.
This book is based on the research of verbal prefixes in Slavic languages and Germanic particles carried out at Tromsø University under supervision of Peter Svenonius. It offers a comparative analysis of the syntactic behavior of English particles and Russian prefixes in prepositional phrases. It concludes that these elements exhibit a lot of similarities and occupy the same position in the syntactic structure. Apart from studying particles and prefixes, this work also provides a thorough analysis of prepositions cross-linguistically, focusing mainly on Russian and English.
This book provides a pragmatic analysis of presidential language. Pragmatics is concerned with "meaning in context," or the relationship between what we say and what we mean. John Wilson explores the various ways in which U.S. Presidents have used language within specific social contexts to achieve specific objectives. This includes obfuscation, misdirection, the use of metaphor or ambiguity, or in some cases simply lying.
This is a lively, comprehensive introduction to current morphological theory and analysis is designed to take absolute beginners to a point where they can approach the current literature in the subject. This updated second edition contains numerous in-text exercises that involve the reader in doing morphology by formulating hypotheses and testing them against data from English and numerous other languages, as well as additional reading suggestions to take the student further into a particular area.
Welcome to Europe as you've never known it before, seen through the peculiarities of its languages and dialects. Combining linguistics and cultural history, Gaston Dorren takes us on an intriguing tour of the continent, from Proto-Indo-European (the common ancestor of most European languages) to the rise and rise of English, via the complexities of Welsh plurals and Czech pronunciation. Along the way we learn why Esperanto will never catch on, how the language of William the Conqueror lives on in the Channel Islands and why Finnish is the easiest European language.
Accessing Noun-Phrase Antecedents offers a radical shift in the analysis of discourse anaphora, from a purely pragmatic account to a cognitive account, in terms of processing procedures. Mira Ariel defines referring expressions as markers signalling the degree of Accessibility in memory of the antecedent. The notion of Accessibility is explicitly defined, the crucial factors being the Salience of the antecedent, and the Unity between the antecedent and the anaphor.
The Perfect and the Preterite in Contemporary and Earlier English
In this study the author discusses various theories that have been put forward to account for the choice between the present perfect and the preterite in expressions of past time in English. The distribution between the two verb forms is examined in a varied corpus consisting of more than 13,000 recorded verb forms, a little more than half of them from present-day English (British and American, spoken and written), the rest from earlier English all the way back to Old English. The analysis of the contemporary corpus is supplemented by elicitation test carried out with British and American informants.