Now the complex and controversial subject of environmental activism is summarized and explained in a single reference work. Beginning with an overview of activism in the past century, this volume puts organizations and their activities into historical context. Environmental Activism: A Reference Handbook first offers an American perspective and then a global one. It chronicles the major events that sparked environmental actions; aligns individuals with organizations, such as John Muir and the Sierra Club; and presents a balanced treatment of activities in both conservative and liberal political spheres. Separate chapters identify six eras of activism from 1900 to 2001 and include their characteristics, issues, strategies, and advocates. This is followed by summaries of the various types of organizations and their strategies, including direct action (ecoterrorism, monkey wrenching) as well as mainstream activity (lobbying, letter writing).