This volume includes the best papers presented at the CHAOS 2008 International Conference on Chaotic Modeling, Simulation and Applications. It provides a valuable collection of new ideas, methods, and techniques in the field of nonlinear dynamics, chaos, fractals and their applications in general science and in engineering sciences. It touches on many fields such as chaos, dynamical systems, nonlinear systems, fractals and chaotic attractors. It also covers mechanics, hydrofluid dynamics, chaos in meteorology and cosmology, Hamiltonian and quantum chaos, chaos in biology and genetics, chaotic control, and chaos in economy and markets, and chaotic simulations; thus, containing cutting-edge interdisciplinary research with high-interest applications. These contributions present new solutions by analyzing the relevant data and through the use of recent advances in different fields, especially in chaotic simulation methods and techniques.