Upon the fall of the Roman Empire, a new imperial rule rose. From Constantinople — the "new Rome" — Emperor Constantine ruled land from Spain to Mesopotamia and from Asia to Egypt. A rift with the Catholic Church led to the establishment of the Eastern Church, and eventually the Eastern Roman Empire. The Byzantine Empire survived more than 1,000 years in spite of the deadly plague and attacks from crusaders and pillagers, but eventually fell victim to a new invention: gunpowder. Cannons destroy Constantinople's city walls, and it was conquered by the Ottomans soon thereafter.