Why a book on learner strategies? Modern languages teaching over the past decade or so has moved from more or less traditional approaches, involving the explicit teaching of grammar and translation, to various versions of communicative methodology. In England, the communicative accent has been reflected in the Graded Objectives movement, the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) and the reform of Advanced Level syllabuses. However, despite this trend and the appearance of aplethora of attractive and authentic language-teaching materials, there has been a growing concern that learners have not progressed as much as might have been anticipated. Furthermore, learners are not developing independent language use; in short, they lack linguistic autonomy.