Paul Krugman earned his Ph.D. in economics from MIT, and has since taught at some of United States' most prestigious universities, including Yale, Stanford, MIT, and currently, Princeton University. Krugman spent a year in the early 1980s working in the White House for the Council of Economic Advisors. He has written and edited several hundred articles and 18 internationally acclaimed books. Notably, he is recognized as a co-founder of the "new trade theory," which has been an important contribution to the fields of economics and finance.In recognition of his achievements, Krugman was awarded the John Bates Clark medal in 1991. Maurice Obstfeld specialized in mathematics in Cambridge University and went on to MIT, where he attained his Ph.D. in economics. He has since held faculty positions at Columbia University and the University of Pennsylvania and currently, is the class of 1958 Professor of Economics at the University of California, Berkeley. Obstfeld has authored numerous articles and highly influential books. In view of his prominence in the fields of economics and finance, he has served as consultant for the World Bank, as participant in the European Commission Study Group on the impact of the Euro on capital markets, and most recently as the honorary advisor for the Institute of Economic and Monetary Studies, Bank of Japan.