Cattle are the main farm animal that is used for meat and milk production for human consumption, providing about 18% of protein intake and 9% of energy intake. Yet despite their obvious value in feeding the human population, cattle farming systems are attacked by members of the public for creating possible health risks, for providing inadequate attention to animal welfare and for alleged adverse effects on the environment. This book describes the scientific principles of cattle production and critically considers the strengths and weaknesses of the latest methods of farming dairy and beef cattle. It is particularly directed at students of agriculture, animal science and welfare and veterinary medicine, cattle husbandry advisers and leading farmers. Farming methods that provide for optimum welfare of cattle are considered in detail. The basic requirements for housing and an adequate environment for cattle are described, as well as problems that cattle encounter in unsuitable accommodation. Some of the major cattle diseases are described individually, with attention given to those causing major loss of profitability, in particular mastitis and lameness, and examples of new diseases that have had a significant impact, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). The metabolic diseases are considered mainly in relation to high-producing dairy herds, and essential elements of prophylaxis are discussed.