For decades North Africa and the Middle East have been areas of overlapping identities and integration processes. The countries of North Africa, apart from Morocco, have supported the re-launch of pan-Africanism in the form of the African Union and its growing institutionalisation. But the countries of North Africa share also an Arab identity and are members of the Arab League. Islamism commands wide support among the population at large. In Turkey, a moderate Islamist party is even in government. But the countries in the region have also experienced a growing impact of European integration in various forms. In some cases (e.g. Morocco or Tunisia) the cooperation is very close. Turkey has even been recognised as a candidate country, its government works actively to make the country meet the EU membership criteria.This comprehensive volume asks the question to what extent these various identities and integration processes are compatible, or whether and to what extent they are in conflict. It unites contributions from various countries which explore these problems from different perspectives.