Ramses II, pharaoh of the 19th Dynasty, left an indelible mark on ancient Egypt. Often known as Ramses the Great, his reign was a golden age when political and cultural life thrived. He created spectacular monuments, including the magnificent Abu Simbel temples, the royal city of Piramses, and his mortuary temple Ramesseum. As a military leader, he expanded the Egyptian sovereignty from Nubia in the south to Syria in the west. Brilliant and ambitious, he forged with the Hittite Empire the first-ever peace treaty.