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Motivating Students to Learn (3rd Edition)


Written specifically for teachers, this book offers a wealth of research-based principles for motivating students to learn. Its focus on motivational principles rather than motivation theorists or theories leads naturally into discussion of specific classroom strategies. Throughout the book these principles and strategies are tied to the realities of contemporary schools (e.g., curriculum goals) and classrooms (e.g., student differences, classroom dynamics). The author employs an eclectic approach to motivation that shows how to effectively integrate the use of extrinsic and intrinsic strategies. Guidelines are provided for adapting motivational principles to group and individual differences and for doing "repair work" with students who have become discouraged or disaffected learners.


Table of Contents




1 Student Motivation: The Teacher's Perspective

Definition and Overview of Motivation

Evolving Views of Motivation

Motivation in the Classroom

Student Motivation to Learn as Your Goal

Motivation as a Component of Situated Action Schemas

Stimulating and Socializing Motivation to Learn

Motivation as Expectancy × Value Reasoning, Often Within a Social Context

Organization of the Book


Reflection Questions


2 Establishing a Learning Community in Your Classroom

Build a Learning Community

Make Yourself and Your Classroom Attractive to Students

Use Appealing Communication Practices

Focus Students' Attention on Individual and Collaborative Learning Goals

Teach for Understanding

Sociocultural Views of Teaching

Two Teachers with Contrasting Motivational Orientations


Reflection Questions


3 Supporting Students' Confidence as Learners

Achievement Situations

Early Work on Task Choice and Goal Setting in Achievement Situations

Subsequent Work on Expectation Aspects of Achievement Situations

Supporting Students' Confidence as Learners

Curriculum: Program for Success

Instruction: Help Students to Set Goals, Evaluate their Progress, and Recognize Effort-Outcome Linkages

Assessment: Emphasize Informative Feedback, Not Grading or Comparing Students


Reflection Questions


4 Goal Theory

Antecedents of Goal Theory

Development of Goal Theory

Goal Theory as Synthesis

Clarifying the Meanings and Implications of Students' Personal Achievement Goals

Expanding Beyond Achievement Goals

Applying Goal Theory

Goal Theory: Looking Ahead



Reflection Questions


5 Rebuilding Discouraged Students' Confidence and Willingness to Learn

Supporting the Motivation of Low Achievers

Resocializing Students with “Failure Syndrome” Problems

Weaning Students Away From Performance Goals and Overemphasis on Self-Worth Protection

Resocializing “Committed Underachievers”



Reflection Questions


6 Providing Extrinsic Incentives

The Value Aspects of Students' Motivation

Common Beliefs About Rewards

Controversy Over Extrinsic Rewards in Education

Strategies for Rewarding Students

Praising Your Students Effectively

Capitalizing on Existing Extrinsic Rewards: Call Students' Attention to the Instrumental Value of Learning

Competition: A Powerful But Problematic Extrinsic Incentive



Reflection Questions


7 Self-Determination Theory of Intrinsic Motivation: Meeting Students' Needs for Autonomy, Competence, and Relatedness

Connecting with Students' Existing Intrinsic Motivation

Conceptions of Intrinsic Motivation

Deci and Ryan's Self-Determination Theory

Autonomy, Competence, and Relatedness as Bases for Autonomous Motivation

Responding to Students' Autonomy Needs

Responding to Students' Competence Needs

Responding to Students' Relatedness Needs

Self-Determination Theory: Looking Ahead


Reflection Questions


8 Other Ways to Support Students' Intrinsic Motivation

Theory and Research on Interest

Adapting Activities to Students' Interests

Adapting Traditional Learning Activities to Enhance their Intrinsic Motivation Potential

Instructional Approaches That Reflect Multiple Principles Working in Combination

Teachers' Experience-Based Motivational Strategies



Reflection Questions


9 Stimulating Students' Motivation to Learn

Motivation to Learn

Related Motivational Concepts

Bringing Students to the Lesson

Paving the Way for Motivation to Learn: Socializing

Teachers Often Need to Scaffold Students' Appreciation of their Learning, by Helping Them to Build Motivated Learning Schemas

Socializing Motivation to Learn as a General Disposition

Stimulating Students' Motivation to Learn in Specific Learning Situations

Strategies for Shaping Students' Expectations about the Learning

Strategies for Inducing Motivation to Learn

Strategies for Scaffolding Students' Learning Efforts

Self-Regulated Learning



Reflection Questions


10 Socializing Uninterested or Alienated Students

Consider Contracting and Incentive Systems

Develop and Work Within a Close Relationship with the Student

Discover and Build on Existing Interests

Help Students to Develop and Sustain More Positive Attitudes Toward School Work

Socialize Apathetic Students' Motivation to Learn

Teach Skills for Self-Regulated Learning and Studying

Teach Volitional Control Strategies



Reflection Questions


11 Adapting to Differences in Students' Motivational Patterns

Theoretical Positions on Group and Individual Differences

A Perspective on Accommodating Students' Preferences

Differences in Psychological Differentiation

Learning Styles and Multiple Intelligences

Conclusions Regarding Learning Styles and Multiple Intelligences

Changes with Age in Students' Motivational Patterns

Gender Differences

Differences in Family and Cultural Backgrounds within American Society

Counteracting Peer Pressures

Contrasts Between Nations and World Regions



Reflection Questions


12 Looking Back and Ahead: Integrating Motivational Goals into Your Planning and Teaching

The TARGET Categories

Keller's Model

Wlodkowski's Model

Incorporating Principles Presented in this Book

Maintaining Your Own Motivation as a Teacher

Summary and Conclusion

Reflection Questions


Author Index

Subject Index

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Tags: principles, strategies, motivation, classroom, student