This book is divided into three parts: Section I, Basic Concepts in Toxicology Testing; Section II, Toxicology Testing In Vivo; and Section III, Toxicology Testing In Vitro.
It begins with an introduction into the fundamentals of toxicology (Section I) to prepare students for the subsequent topics, and continues with discussions of toxicokinetics and human risk assessment. This introductory material is useful in explaining the applications of toxicology testing.
Section II describes in detail the fundamental principles of toxicology testing in animals. It describes acute toxicity, subchronic, and chronic studies performed in animals. Special emphasis is placed on study design and determination of classical indicators of acute and chronic studies such as the LD50 values. Other short- and long-term animal toxicity testing methodologies including dermal, ocular, and reproductive toxicity testing are discussed. Mutagenicity and carcinogenicity studies are also discussed in separate chapters.
Section III introduces and discusses in vitro alternatives to animal toxicology tests. It emphasizes cell culture methodology, cellular methods for acute systemic toxicity, and target organ and local toxicity. The advantages and disadvantages of alternative methods are presented. Special features of this section describe the use of high throughput screening (HTS) and its applications, the concepts of standardization and validation of in vitro techniques (especially large organized validation efforts currently supported by United States and European Union regulatory agencies), and the theories supporting the development of in vitro methodologies. Undergraduate and graduate toxicology students and industrial and academic research laboratories will find the text useful for entry level students in the discipline or for establishing a toxicology testing laboratory, respectively.