The twenty chapters in this book all focus on aspects of mathematical beliefs, from a variety of different perspectives. Current knowledge of the field is synthesized and existing boundaries are extended.The book is divided into three, partly overlapping, sections. The first concentrates on conceptualizations and measurement of beliefs, the second on research about teachers' beliefs, and the third on facets of students' beliefs about mathematics. A diversity of instruments is used for data collection, including surveys, interviews, observations, and essay writing, as well as more innovative approaches.The volume is intended for researchers in the fleld, as well as for mathematics educators teaching the next generation of students. The book is also useful for those working in other subject disciplines, since many of the themes explored have relevance well beyond mathematics education.