Many different disciplines are analyzing the impact of music today. How and why this ancient cultural asset molds, empowers and makes use of us can only become apparent in a synopsis and exchange involving scientific research. With this perspective as its foundation, the conference "Mozart and Science" extended invitations to the first interdisciplinary and international dialogue between the social and physical sciences about the effects of music. This book is based on the results of that congress. It contains contributions penned by leading scientists from around the world belonging to diverse music science disciplines and in particular covers psycho-physiological, neuro-developmental and cognitive aspects associated with the experience of music. Additional essays provide insights into research conducted about how music is applied in therapy and medicine.