Written by leading experts, this book reviews the current research evidence for the health benefits of a diet rich in olive oil. It focuses on the role of olive oil in reducing the incidence of certain types of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory bowel disease and diabetes, and the effect of olive oil on the immune system. Nutritional aspects of dietary fats, in general, and of olive oil in particular, are of great interest in many nutrition-related pathologies in which they are implicated. Olive oil plays an important role in the reduction of blood cholesterol levels, hence reduces the risk of heart disease and stroke. It is a good source of antioxidants in the form of polyphenols and vitamin E and there is also emerging evidence that olive oil has a role in reducing the incidence of certain types of cancer. This book discusses and summarizes current research and knowledge on olive oil.