The Russian Revolution of 1917 has been described as the most important political event of the twentieth century. In tracing its origins, the author takes as his starting point the emancipation of the Russian serfs and the `Great Reforms' of the 1860s. He analyzes the evolution of the revolutionary movement, showing how the traditions of popular rebellion, intellectual opposition and military revolt combined and culminated in the upheavals of 1917. Because of the importance of of its ultimate victory in gaining political power, particular attention is given to the development of the Bolshevik Party. A final section surveys the manner in which the Revolution has been treated by both Western and Soviet historians. The book has been revised and expanded for this edition.